The picture scrolls of the Buddhist Six Realms of Rebirth (Rokudō-e) were produced in association with the retired emperor Go-Shirakawa (1127-1192) and became part of the collection in the treasury at Rengeō-in Temple. Together with the Scroll of Buddhist Hell and the Scroll of Hungry Ghosts, the Scroll of Diseases and Deformities is considered to form part of the Rokudō-e; it is understood to express the suffering in the human realm, one of the six realms in the circle of transmigration. This picture was converted into a hanging scroll in the early 20th century. It depicts a woman suffering from insomnia, one of the diseases widely discussed in sutras, medical books, and Buddhist literature. It is a brilliant depiction of the loneliness of a woman, counting the minutes on her fingers and unable to sleep in the middle of the night.